1. When the boats come in
2. Evacuation system
3. Offshore renewables
4. Drift prediction
5. Methane coalition
6. Fuel for the future
7. Green offshore guide
8. Autonomous technology
9. Biofuel ready notation
10. Seafarers ordeal
Notices & Miscellany
Readers’ responses to our articles are very welcome and, where suitable, will be reproduced. Write to: firstname.lastname@example.org
1. When the boats come in
By Michael Grey
A communication from the UK Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs will probably have nobody’s heart leaping with joy among the various sectors regulated by this multifarious body. It was an old shipowner who told me that he operated “in spite of” government rather than under its benign authority and such a view will certainly predominate where farmers, food producers and fishermen congregate.
It is said that the department has long been “captured” by those whose priorities are unashamedly environmental, which accounts for fanatical enthusiasm for “rewilding” and furious planting of trees, changing the whole nature of the British landscape. Perhaps the introduced wolves will eat the beavers, before they have felled all the newly planted trees, as a sort of non-virtuous circle, which you hope might have occurred to the authorities. But greens tend not to think like the rest of us. Similarly, one wouldn’t be at all surprised to discover that the ridiculous insistence that we should eschew meat (rather than chew it) will have the fell hand of some Defra sub-committee behind it. And if you wish to dredge your waterways to stop them flooding, forget it. The welfare of the invertebrates dwelling in the mud comes first.
Let us segue seamlessly to the maritime community in Northumberland, more specifically to the Holy Island of Lindisfarne, where the dead hand of Defra has recently alighted in the shape of a proposal to create what is known as a Highly Protected Marine Area around the island. There are already a number of marine conservation areas imposed in the vicinity, but this one, with all the bells and whistles attached, would prohibit pretty well everything bar paddling, in this coastal sea area. And in particular, it would spell the end of a small-scale fishing operation in which some half-dozen potters harvest crab and lobsters in a thoroughly sustainable fashion.
I should declare an interest as this is a place I know well, as my family hails from these parts and it is fair to note that it is a precious marine habitat, which certainly does not want to see any form of industrial exploitation in the sea. But the local fisherman are genuinely “low-impact” users of the sea and take enormous pride in operating a fully sustainable fishery, recognised by the Northumberland Inshore Fisheries and Conservation Society as an exemplar. The skippers themselves know that conservation benefits them all and are the best possible policemen, protecting their own marine environment.
There is an economic case to be made for the retention of this tiny fishing fleet, in a fishery that has been operating as long as there has been a population on the island, which at the very least, is more than a millennium. Defra itself has devised criteria in which they suggest every effort will be made to “minimise social and economic impacts while maximising ecological gain”, which will scarcely be fulfilled by closing down a small-scale but vital industry in this community, with surprisingly wide knock-on effects upon the island families. Maybe they think that they can move their pots and boats further offshore (which would be hazardous) or elsewhere on the coast, which would clearly negatively impact neighbouring fishing communities. The whole proposal seems to the islanders, ill-conceived, with a ludicrously short three-month consultation period, which itself has enraged everyone affected. Perhaps Defra in its wisdom thinks that a small community will be happy to roll over and submit for its supposed benefits for the environment. Perhaps the size encouraged their proposals. If this is the case, the agency has grossly miscalculated.
I have an interest here, but it is worth highlighting this David & Goliath contest on Lindisfarne because it is symptomatic of so much of what is wrong with our current priorities as the authorities roar around pursuing their often unrealistic or downright deluded environmental goals. The journal Nature last year published a study by Plymouth University which concluded that commercial pot fisheries are likely to be compatible with marine conservation, when managed correctly. That ought to matter, because it is entirely in the fishermen’s interests to conserve their stocks. So you might suggest that this small handful of Northumbrian skippers are the best possible custodians of their own marine environment, and not some remote authority far from their shores, but which thinks it knows best. “I’m from Defra. Here to help”. We think not.
Michael Grey is former editor of Lloyd’s List.
2. Evacuation system
Survitec has launched a new Marine Evacuation System (MES) designed to meet the emergency evacuation requirements of small to medium size passenger vessels.
Targeted at vessels with passenger capacities ranging from 300 to 1,500 persons, such as ferries and expedition cruise ships, the new MES solution will be rolled out for full market availability from early 2023.The new MES solution builds on Survitec’s activity in the larger cruise ship market, where the company has already installed a number of MES systems.
Customers can expect to see operational and cost efficiencies with an extended service MES option of up to 30 months, although the standard 12-month service offering remains available to those customers that choose it. Survitec also provides training programmes for crew, to improve their emergency evacuation skills and how to deploy MES correctly.
“We were aware that there was demand for an extended service MES solution with high functionality to serve the ferry and small passenger cruise market. We went back to the drawing board and took a fresh look at how we could drive innovation to meet this need,” says Richard McCormick, MES product manager at Survitec.
Using the fully enclosed, dry-shod helical (spiral) slide design of the company’s popular Marin Ark 2, the new MES solution ensures safe, rapid and intuitive descent for people of all ages and abilities. There is no restriction on the size of individual users, and crew can ascend the slide to assist passengers if necessary.
Fully enclosed single and double helical slide options are available in an asymmetric arrangement, the new MES solution comprises self-righting approved liferafts for 50, 100, 150 persons, with SOLAS A, B and HSC emergency packs.
For use on vessels with up to 23m of freeboard, the new MES solution will be type approved later this year by classification society Bureau Veritas according to SOLAS and MED requirements.
The flexible design allows for installation in a wide range of configurations. Inflation takes place automatically within 60 seconds and minimal crew interaction is needed during this phase. Multiple buoyancy compartments provide stability and safety in the toughest sea conditions.
3. Offshore renewables
Insurer the Standard Club is warning ship operators looking to enter the rapidly expanding offshore renewable energy sector of key differences in liability related regimes around the world and specific contractual risks. The club, which has provided specialist marine cover to the oil and gas sector since the 1970s, and renewables sector since the early 2000s, has updated two detailed guides which examine issues in offshore contracting and analyses various offshore jurisdictions.
The newly published 16 page Standard Club Offshore & Renewables Contracting Guide advises that some contracts expose ship operators and charterers to risks which will not be covered under standard protection & indemnity (P&I) pooling arrangements. Contracts in the oil and gas market are typically based on knock-for-knock terms meaning each party is responsible for their people and property, regardless of the cause. As the offshore renewables market has evolved from onshore construction, renewables contracts often need marine clauses to be included retrospectively.
Standard Club’s Divisional Head of Offshore & Renewables, John Croucher said: “It’s critical that any company looking to enter the fast-growing offshore renewables sector understands the differences in regimes around the world as well as the many exclusions from poolable P&I cover according to the contract, operation or ship type.”
He added: “There are unique risks in every territory. These range from metocean conditions, weather, water depth and seismic risks, technological risks like floating wind, or regulatory, legal, contractual and geopolitical risks. It is important to remember that the right to limit liability, especially in respect of wreck removal is not the same everywhere and nor are the application of the Bunkers, CLC, Wreck Removal or Maritime Labour Conventions.”
The Standard Club’s updated Offshore Jurisdiction Guide covers 17 different jurisdictions and is now available on the club’s website. Standard Club also offers a contract review service which provides a thorough review of individual contracts and operations.
Standard Club has seen a sharp rise in interest in the offshore renewables market from companies who have not previously been active in the sector. The potential for rapid evolution of offshore renewable energy capacity in the US, Japan and Taiwan as well as continued European wind farm development requires a range of different vessels and contracts from the initial research and survey phase, through to installation/construction, operation, maintenance, repair and eventual decommissioning.
4. Drift prediction
DNV’s Emergency Response Service has launched a new drift prediction feature to mitigate risk with disabled and drifting vessels, and to predict the path of oil spills and floating objects, including man overboard and containers.
An incident onboard a vessel can result in a disabled ship, oil spill, floating cargo or persons drifting in the water to create an unpredictable situation with safety and environmental risk that complicates emergency response. Shipping companies need to be able to determine the drift paths of floating assets, objects or spilled chemicals at an early stage after an incident so these can be plotted on their own navigational charts to plan a prompt and efficient response when time is of the essence. In many cases, efficient handling of such incidents is significantly increased by having access to a prediction of the associated drift path.
“The drift prediction feature is a powerful addition to the toolbox of data-enhanced services within ERS supporting a fast and effective emergency response demonstrated across 741 maritime incidents over the past three decades,” says DNV’s ERS principal engineer Rossen Panev
5. Methane coalition
A coalition of key shipping players are getting involved in the Methane Abatement in Maritime (MAM) initiative, which aims to assess and manage methane emissions in the maritime industry, and drive forward new ideas and technology solutions relating to the issue.
Maran Gas Maritime, MSC , Carnival Corporation, Seaspan, Shell, Lloyd’s Register and Knutsen are participating in the MAM project, with the aim of minimising the environmental impact of LNG in shipping, while coming up with future fuel solutions, including monitoring methane slip from LNG fuelled vessels.
“Measuring the scale of methane emissions, and understanding if they can be managed to negligible levels, will signal if liquefied bio-methane and liquefied synthetic methane are viable pathway fuels to help achieve 2050 decarbonisation targets,” MAM said recently.
Andreas Spertos, technical director at Maran Gas Maritime, commented in an article by Splash 24/7: “Maran Gas Maritime has long been convinced of the advantages of LNG as a clean burning fuel and as an alternative marine fuel. However, in light of the strong warming potential of methane releases to the atmosphere, keeping tight control over methane emissions is critical to ensure that LNG’s overall GHG footprint delivers as much GHG reduction as possible versus conventional marine fuels.”
“To date, there are no globally recognised methods for measuring methane slip – with a lack of available data and tools contributing to the issue. It is hoped the new solutions identified by the innovation initiative will help the industry to understand the extent of, and then manage, their methane emissions activities,” MAM said.
The group will also be looking at the use of bio- and synthetic methane, and whether, in using it, it will be possible to address the issue of methane slip, which is currently a matter of concern, and establish whether slip can be reduced to small enough levels.
“LNG has long been understood by the shipping industry as a bridging fuel to support its decarbonisation efforts – with campaign groups forecasting that over two-thirds of new ships will be powered by LNG by 2025. Since 2010, the number of vessels fuelled by LNG has grown consistently by 20-40% per annum,” MAM said.
“Compared with traditional marine fuels, LNG is widely understood to generate less carbon dioxide, and emit less nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, and particulate matter for the same propulsion power [as diesel fuels]. However, some analysis has indicated that the environmental benefits of using LNG could be negated due to the propensity of LNG-vessels to leak unburned methane through the combustion process,” MAM wrote in its announcement.
The MAM initiative will be chaired by Lloyd’s Register global gas director Panagiotis Mitrou and directed by Safetytech Accelerator head of partnerships, Steve Price. According to Price “Shipping currently lacks the information and tools they need to accurately measure the amount of methane released by LNG-fuelled ships, and the extent of this impact.
“We believe that better information will allow the maritime industry to better understand the extent to which its LNG-fuelled ships are emitting methane.
“Understanding the extent of this methane slip will allow companies, society and policymakers understand LNG’s real environmental impact, empowering markets to channel investments to new technologies that can reduce methane slip, or to other transition fuels.”
Panos Mitrou, Global Gas Director, Lloyd’s Register, said: “The need to reduce the negative effects of global climate change becomes more urgent with each passing day. So it is critical that the industry does everything it can – as quickly as possible – to unlock the potential of LNG as a transition fuel. By convening industry members who have already made great strides in abating emissions across their fleets, we aim to share and promote best practices across the supply chain for the benefit of the entire sector.”
The EU has also announced funding for the HELENUS project which will build, integrate and demonstrate a 500kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) module operating in cogeneration (combined heat and power) mode, in an MSC World class series ocean cruise vessel. The SOFC will be fully integrated- spatially, electrically, and thermally- into the ship design. SOFCs are the most efficient chemical energy converters available today, and are also highly fuel-flexible- thereby remaining highly relevant for the future of waterborne transport.
6. Fuel for the future
Classification society DNV has produced its predictions as to the outlook for fuel supply and use going forward. As Knut Ørbeck-Nilssen CEO Maritime, DNV says in his introduction to the new report: “Encouragingly, newbuild vessels are increasingly being ordered ready to run on alternative fuels, with LNG dominant for now. Substantial investment is going into researching safe and economically feasible alternative carbon-neutral fuels and into developing fuel technologies. But this will count for little if the industry and its stakeholders do not collaborate to overcome the ultimate hurdle, fuel availability.” He warns however that the push towards full decarbonisation by 2050 means the fuel infrastructure needs to deliver around 270 million tonnes of alternative fuels according to DNV estimates, which represents “A mammoth challenge”.
The report also presents an updated outlook on regulations, drivers, future technologies, and costs for decarbonizing shipping. It models two different decarbonization pathways: ‘Current IMO ambitions to 2050’ and ‘Full Decarbonization by 2050’. DNV’s modelling points to a diverse future energy-mix comprising both fossil and carbon-neutral fuels, with fossil fuels gradually phased out by 2050.
“The search for the best alternative carbon-neutral fuel options and technologies is underway as the entire world seeks to decarbonize,” said Ørbeck-Nilssen. “No industry can decarbonise in isolation so global industries need to make the right choices together, and sustainable energy should be directed to where it has the biggest impact on reducing GHG emissions. The ultimate hurdle is fuel availability and to overcome it, supply chains must be built through cross-industry alliances.”
“Carbon-neutral fuels must be made available for ships already within this decade, in decarbonization pathways assessed. By no later than 2030, 5% of the energy for shipping should come from carbon-neutral fuels. This will require substantial investments in both onboard technologies and onshore infrastructure,” he continued.
Coordinated plans by all stakeholders, including major energy and fuel providers and ports, is crucial while public incentives must encourage first movers to participate in a nascent global network of green shipping corridors.
The report’s new and extended fuel-mix scenario library for shipping can be applied to DNV’s updated Carbon-Risk-Framework to help shipowners find the most efficient and cost-effective fuel strategies, while focusing on fuel flexibility and energy efficiency remains key to easing the transition and minimizing the risk of investing in stranded assets.
In terms of fuel choice, uncertainties around future price and availability mean that a clear winner among the many options – ammonia, methanol, diesel or methane, produced from sustainable biomass, renewable electricity or fossil fuels with carbon capture and storage – cannot be identified yet or in the near future. The report outlines under what conditions each option will proliferate. DNV’s enhanced GHG Pathway Model estimates the investment costs of implementation of new fuel supply chains and fuel technologies as well as energy efficiency measures onboard the world fleet.
“Our findings add to the body of research evidence that owners need to take confident, robust long-term decisions on the investments needed for their existing fleet and newbuilding projects,” said Eirik Ovrum, DNV Maritime Principal Consultant and Maritime Forecast to 2050 lead author.
“We probe variations on three fuel families in which we simulate the availability of sustainable biomass to produce biofuels, renewable electricity to produce e-fuels, and fossil fuels in combination with carbon capture and storage (CCS) to produce blue fuels. We also explore variations for specific fuel types, in which key input factors impacting the relative cost differences between fuels within each family are scrutinized. In total we explore 24 decarbonization scenarios.”
The fuel transition has already started, with 5.5% of ships (gross tonnage) in operation and 33% of gross tonnage on order today able to operate on alternative fuel (largely dominated by LNG today). The future market will be reliant on multiple energy sources, integration with regional energy markets, energy production and industries, and on the availability and price of energy sources.
DNV forecasts that onboard technology investments required for the ‘Decarbonization by 2050’ pathway scenarios will range from USD 8 to 28 billion per year (depending on which fuel type has the largest uptake) between 2022 and 2050. Investments of between 30 and 90 billion USD per year to 2050 are needed for the onshore fuel supply chains.
“Two thousand ships are expected to be ordered annually to 2030 but there is still no silver-bullet fuel solution available,” said Ørbeck-Nilssen. “Against this uncertainty, the new Maritime Forecast to 2050 report can serve as a beacon of expert advice and smart solutions to ensure vessels stay commercially competitive and compliant over their lifetimes, underpinned throughout by the enduring need for safety,” he concluded.
7. Greener offshore guide
ABS has launched detailed requirements for greener offshore operations in a sustainability guide to target the offshore industry.
Developed by working with major offshore industry clients, ABS has launched a revised sustainability guide expanded with offshore asset compliance requirements.
The updated ABS Guide for Sustainability Notations addresses topside functions on offshore assets such as emissions and discharge based on feedback from ABS clients including ExxonMobil, SBM and MODEC.
The guide outlines how carbon reduction technologies such as zero-flaring and zero-methane slip policies can enable assets to receive the SUSTAIN-2 notation. The ABS-classed Liza Unity FPSO for ExxonMobil in Guyana was the first FPSO in the world to receive the SUSTAIN-1 notation from ABS.
“As the leading class for offshore assets worldwide, ABS has a key role to play in supporting the industry through the energy transition. The revisions to the guide are a key component of that and an example of how together we can develop a more sustainable industry,” said Miguel Hernandez, ABS Senior Vice President, Global Offshore.
“ABS is a leading sustainability advisor in the industry, and we are also the leader in offshore services with a rich history of offshore experience. This update to our guide to address offshore emissions further supports our clients in meeting our industry’s sustainability objectives,” said Georgios Plevrakis, ABS Vice President, Global Sustainability.
Download a copy of the ABS Guide for Sustainability Notations here. Additional ABS guidance on emissions from floating production installations (FPIs) can be found in the Emissions Reduction Insights for FPIs here.
8. Autonomous technology
DNV signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with maritime industry technology leaders HHI, AVIKUS and Liberian International Ship & Corporate Registry (LISCR) to collaborate on autonomous ship technology developments.
The Hyundai intelligent Navigation Assistant System (HiNAS 2.0) is an AI-based navigation solution that covers all steps for a voyage from detection to situation analysis, planning and control. The system assists in safe navigation by displaying AR (augmented reality) images of detected ships and navigation information. Furthermore, it controls heading and speed for collision avoidance and route tracking. Developed by AVIKUS, a subsidiary of Hyundai Heavy Industries (HHI), the system creates and controls optimal routes for collision avoidance in the ocean, aiming to reduce crew fatigue and increase fuel efficiency.
The multilateral MOU includes a joint study to deploy autonomous navigation systems on board ships to increase technology uptake by the industry and flag states. During the project, AVIKUS, HHI and LISCR will actively contribute to developing autonomous maritime solutions that comply with DNV Rules on autonomous operations, where AVIKUS aims to obtain an Approval in Principle from DNV as well as the Liberian Flag Administration.
“Through this cooperation, we believe that we will gain momentum to move forward to the next stage of autonomous ship technology. We will try to maintain the leading position in this technology and to increase competitiveness in the future ship market,” said Won Ho Joo, CTO of HHI.
“This joint development is meaningful in that it includes shipyards, autonomous solution companies, classification, and flag states to commercialize autonomous navigation solutions. Based on the results of this project, we will successfully commercialize HiNAS 2.0 and contribute to the improvement of navigation safety and fuel savings,” said Dohyeong Lim, CEO of AVIKUS.
“As a result of the 4th Industrial Revolution, the fast-paced technology development will pave the way for autonomous shipping. This ground-breaking MOU with collaboration between forward-thinking and safety-focused stakeholders will set an example of how artificial intelligence can support and enhance the safety of navigation and reduce GHG emissions,” said Thomas Klenum, Executive Vice President, Innovation and Regulatory Affairs at LISCR.
“Rightly applied, a higher degree of digitalization can contribute to safety and efficiency enhancements in shipping. Therefore, we are pleased to collaborate with industry technology leaders and help to advance the development of autonomous ships,” said Vidar Dolonen, Regional Manager DNV Maritime Korea & Japan.
9. Biofuel ready notation
Bureau Veritas (BV) has released a new “Biofuel Ready” notation to support the wider deployment of biofuels in the shipping industry. This notation will help the maritime industry address the main challenges related to the use of biofuels by ships, providing requirements to ensure ship safety and environmental compliance.
The notation aims at helping shipowners to be prepared for the use of biofuels or biofuel blends. It provides a set of requirements, and outlines a comprehensive methodology for the required documentation and testing, taking into account the fuel’s technical specifications. The Biofuel Ready notation certifies that the conditions to use biofuel onboard a ship have been successfully met – and any testing to check NOx emissions (if applicable) has been completed satisfactorily. The notation can be applied to both new and existing ships.
Bureau Veritas expects that this new notation will enable shipowners to take advantage of their preliminary work with the use of biofuels, while also helping them to be prepared in order to obtain Flag Administration acceptance with regards to MARPOL Annex VI requirements on NOx emissions.
Laurent Leblanc, senior vice president technical & operations at Bureau Veritas, commented “As one of the few fuel options available today to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from existing fleets, the use of biofuels by the shipping industry is growing rapidly. I am proud that we can now help shipowners deploy these innovative fuels on their vessels, while ensuring that all safety and regulatory requirements are met. This new notation is an important addition to the existing toolbox on the road to the IMO’s 2030 and 2050 GHG and carbon reduction targets. It is also an example of our continued commitment to supporting our clients on their decarbonisation journey, by providing the independent expertise and validation that helps the industry safely progress innovative solutions.”
10. Seafarers ordeal
The plight of a crew from a bulk carrier who had been denied shore leave and whose work contracts had been extended, has finally ended, following intervention by global ship visiting network Stella Maris
The ship arrived at Tees Dock in Northeast England on the weekend of August 13 and 14, with 22 seafarers on board. On August 15, two Stella Maris ship visitors conducted a routine visit, taking with them welcome packs and bags of clothing for the crew.
“During the course of conversation, several crew members indicated that all was not right on board. The ship visitors found out that some of the crew had not been allowed shore leave for up to 10 months. Their contracts had also been extended for up to 10 months,” said Deacon Peter Barrigan, Stella Maris Tees, Hartlepool and Seaham regional chaplain.
This was putting huge mental and physical strain on the seafarers. One of them said that during the voyage to Teesport from the United States, he was only getting two hours sleep a day because he was so stressed and overworked.
Communication with family back home was also limited. There was internet onboard, but it wasn’t very good, the seafarer had said. He was also concerned that the crew were no longer able to operate the vessel safely as they were exhausted.
Worried about the crew’s physical and mental wellbeing, and their safety, the Stella Maris team contacted the Maritime and Coastguard Agency and the International Transport Workers Federation, who visited the vessel on August 17. A vessel detention notice was served that afternoon.
Following that, the seafarers were able to go ashore for the first time in many months. They spent time relaxing at the South Tees Mission Centre. More good news was to follow, as 11 of the crew were repatriated to the Philippines on August 20
Notices & Miscellany
Innovation in Safety award
Following the successful re-introduction of the Award in 2021 with its record number of entries, the 2022 Innovation in Safety award will form the centrepiece of TT Club and ICHCA’s on-going efforts to encourage players in the freight transport and cargo handling sectors further in continuing to improve operational safety and efficiency through innovation. Entrants are invited to submit details of their innovations by 11 November 2022. Past winners have ranged from individual entrepreneurs and specialist suppliers to employee teams in major industry businesses. Entrants are required to show that a product, idea, solution, process, scheme or other innovation has resulted in a demonstrable improvement in safety.
Details of how to submit entries and of the judging criteria can be found here: https://ichca.com/tt-club-innovation-in-safety-awards
LR has announced a collaboration with The Alan Turing Institute, the national institute for data science and AI, to drive forward the maritime industry on its digitalisation journey. The cooperation will provide companies adopting digital technology with a fast and cost-effective independent assurance and testing service provider, using both The Alan Turing Institute and LR’s considerable resources and expertise.
LSLC-YMP and Ince are holding a breakfast event to discuss off-spec bunker claims at Ince’s office at the Aldgate Tower, 2 Leman Street, London E1 8QN on Tuesday 20th September at 9AM BST.
In light of a series of bunker disputes, predominantly in Singapore, this session will consider the issue of off-specification bunker disputes. Specifically, consideration will be given to:
- Charterparty obligations in the supply of bunkers
- Common issues that arise associated with off-spec bunkers
- Recent cases
- Practical hints and tips when handling off-spec bunker claims.
Please notify the Editor of your appointments, promotions, new office openings and other important happenings: email@example.com
(With thanks to Paul Dixon)
Chris: How was your trip to New York?
Brian: Well, a mugger stopped me and said, “Gimme your money, or I’ll blow your brains out.”
Chris: What did you do?
Brian: I told him to go ahead and shoot. He was so shocked, he ran away.
Chris: Wow! He told you to give him your money or he’d blow your brains out, and you told him to go ahead and shoot??
Brian: Yeah. You don’t need brains to live in New York, but you can’t get along without money.
A squad car driver was driving out in the sticks where he was amazed to find a former lieutenant on the police force covering the beat.
He stopped the car and asked, “Why, Irish Mike, this wouldn’t be your new beat out here in the sticks, would it?”
“That it is, “Irish Mike replied grimly, “Ever since I arrested the judge on his way to the masquerade ball.”
“You mean you arrested his honour?” asked Pat.
“How was I to know that his convict suit was only a costume?” demanded Mike.
“Well,” mused Pat, “there’s a lesson in this somewhere.”
“That there is,” replied Irish Mike, . . . “Tis wise never to book a judge by his cover.”
A man sat at a bar, drinking slowly. On his face was the saddest hangdog expression.
The bartender asked, “What’s the matter? Are you having troubles with your wife?”
The man said, “We had a fight, and she told me that she wasn’t going to speak to me for a month.”
The bartender said, “That should make you happy.”
The man said, “Not if the month is up today!”
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